2/20/2010

Essential English Words for Technology Evangelist

Here I summarized some most used(also most likely misused) technical English word in my daily activities. Also Punctuation and Number terms are listed for further reference.

Part I - Paired Words

Homogeneous/Heterogeneous
- Homogeneous[ˌho-mo-ˈjē-nē-əs]: of the same or a similar kind or nature
- Heterogeneous[ˌhe-tə-rə-ˈjē-nē-əs]: consisting of dissimilar elements or part

Synchronous/Asynchronous
- Synchronous[ˈsiŋ-krə-nəs]:of, used in, or being digital communication (as between computers) in which a common timing signal is established that dictates when individual bits can be transmitted and which allows for very high rates of data transfer
- Asynchronous[ā-ˈsiŋ-krə-nəs]:of, used in, or being digital communication (as between computers) in which there is no timing requirement for transmission and in which the start of each character is individually signaled by the transmitting device

Deterministic/Non-deterministic
- Deterministic[-ˌtər-mə-ˈnis-tik]:a : a theory or doctrine that acts of the will, occurrences in nature, or social or psychological phenomena are causally determined by preceding events or natural laws b : a belief in predestination
- Non-deterministic: the opposite of deterministic

Intuitive/Heuristic
- Intuitive[in-ˈtü-ə-tiv]: known or perceived without evident rational thought and inference
- Heuristic[hy-ˈris-tik]: involving or serving as an aid to learning, discovery, or problem-solving by experimental and especially trial-and-error methods

Ambiguous/Ambitious
-Ambiguous[am-ˈbi-gyə-wəs]:capable of being understood in two or more possible senses or ways
-Ambitious[am-ˈbi-shəs]:having a desire to achieve a particular goal

Linear/Exponential/Polynomial/Order of Magnitude
- Linear[ˈli-nē-ər]:of the first degree with respect to one or more variables(线性的)
- Polynomial[ˌpä-lə-ˈnō-mē-əl]:a mathematical expression of one or more algebraic terms, each of which consists of a constant multiplied by one or more variables raised to a non-negative integral power (as a + bx + cx2)(多项式的)
- Exponential[ˌek-spə-ˈnen-chəl]:expressible or approximately expressible by an exponential function; especially : characterized by or being an extremely rapid increase(指数级的)
- Order of Magnitude:a range of magnitude extending from some value to ten times that value(数量级)

Supplementary/Complementary
- Supplementary[sə-plə-ˈmen-tə-rē]: added or serving as something that completes or makes an addition(增加的,额外的)
- Complementary[ˌkäm-plə-ˈmen-t(ə-)rē]:mutually supplying each other's lack(互补的,补缺的)

Mandatory/Canonical
- Mandatory[ˈman-də-ˌtr-ē]:containing or constituting a command(强制的)
- Canonical[-ni-kəl]:conforming to a general rule or acceptable procedure(规范的)

Preliminary/Elementary
- Preliminary[pri'liminəri]: something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows(初步的)
- Elementary[.elə'mentəri]: easy and not involved or complicated(基本的)

Involve/Evolve/Evaluate/Revolution
- Involve: to engage as a participant
- Evolve: undergo development or evolution
- Evaluate: place a value on; judge the worth of something
- Revolution: a drastic and far-reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving

Theorem/Law/Axiom/Lemma
- Theorem['θiərəm]: an idea accepted as a demonstrable truth(定理)
- Law: the collection of rules imposed by authority(法则)/a generalization that describes recurring facts or events in nature(定律)
- Axiom['æksiəm]: a proposition that is not susceptible of proof or disproof; its truth is assumed to be self-evident(公理)
- Lemma['lemə]: a subsidiary proposition that is assumed to be true in order to prove another proposition(引理)

Principle/Principal
- Principle['prɪnsəp(ə)l]: a rule or standard especially of good behavior
- Principal['prɪnsəp(ə)l]: main, or most important/any one of the most significant participants in an event or a situation

Personal/Personnel
- Personal['pɜrsən(ə)l]: relating to a specific person rather than anyone else/the personal column in a newspaper or magazine
- Personnel[.pɜrsə'nel]: the people employed in an organization, business, or armed force

Illegible/Eligible/Tangible
- Illegible[ɪ'ledʒəb(ə)l]: impossible or very difficult to read
- Eligible['elɪdʒəb(ə)l]: entitled or qualified to do, be, or get something
- Tangible['tændʒəb(ə)l]: capable of being given a physical existence

Paradigm/Diagram/Chart
- Paradigm: an example that serves as a pattern or model for something, especially one that forms the basis of
- Diagram: a simple drawing showing the basic shape, layout, or workings of something
- Chart: a diagram or table displaying detailed information

Compliant/Complement/Compliment
- Compliant: designed to follow a particular law, system, or set of instructions
- Complement: to complete, perfect, or go well with something else
- Compliment: to say something nice to or about someone

Consecutive/Continuous
- Consecutive[kən'sekjətɪv]: following one after another, without interruption, successive
- Continuous[kən'tɪnjuəs]: uninterrupted in time, sequence, substance or extend

In a Nutshell/Cookbook
- In a Nutshell: in very few words, getting right to the main point
- Cookbook: a book containing detailed directions for a process of any kind

Nuts and Bolts/Pros and Cons
- Nuts and Bolts: the most basic components, elements, or constituents of something
- Pros and Cons: the advantages and disadvantages of something

Consensus/Quorum
- Consensus[kən'sensəs]: agreement among all the people involved(一致意见)
- Quorum['kwɔrəm]: the smallest number of people who must be present at a meeting to allow official decisions to be mad(法定人数)

Empirical/Theoretical
- Empirical: based on real experience or scientific experiments rather than on theory
- Theoretical: based on theories or ideas instead of on practical experience

Systematic/Ad hoc
- Systematic: carried out in a methodical and organized manner
- Ad hoc: done only when needed for a specific purpose, without planning or preparation

Authentication/Authorization
- Authentication: the act of proving or showing that something is real and not false or copied
- Authorization: the process which aims to confirm that somebody has permission to do something or be somewhere

Orthogonal/Causal
- Orthogonal[ɔ:'θɔgənl]: statistically unrelated (正交的,无关的)
- Causal['kɔz(ə)l]:involving or constituting a cause; causing(因果相关的)

Part II Single Words

Prune
- to remove something considered unnecessary or unwanted

Dilemma
- a situation in which you have to make a difficult decision

Spin Off
- a product made during the manufacture of something else
- a company "splits off" sections of itself as a separate business

De Facto
- acting or existing in fact but without legal sanction

Part III - Abbreviation/省略词组

- VS Versus
- I.E. Id Est, that is to say
- E.G. exempli gratia, for example
- A.K.A. as known as

Part IV - Punctuation/标点符号

, Comma/逗号
; Semicolon/分号
: Colon/冒号
. Dot/Period/句号
" Quote/引号
- Dash/Hyphen/连字符号
_ Underscore/下划线
... ellipsis/省略号
/ Slash/斜线
() Parentheses/圆括号
[] Bracket/方括号
{} Brace/花括号
<> Angle Bracket/尖括号
| Vertical Bar/单竖线
‖ Parallel 双线号
* Asterisk/Star/星号
& Ampersand/and符号
^ Caret/脱字符
% Per Cent/百分号
‰ Per Mill/千分号
$ Dollar/美元符号
# Pound/井字号
@ At/地址符号
~ Tilde/Swung Dash/波浪号/代字符号
` Grave accent/Back Quote/重音符号/反引号
+ Plus/正
- Minus/负
x Multiply/乘
÷ Divide/除
∞ Infinity/无限
∵ Since/Because/因为
∴ Hence/所以
∷ Equals/等于
∪ Union/并
∩ Intersection/ 交
∫ Integral/积分
∑ Sigma/Summation/总和
℃ Celsius System/摄氏度
§ Section/Division/分节号

Part V - Number

10^1 - ten
10^2 - hundred
10^3 - thousand/kilo-
10^6 - million/mega-
10^9 - billion/giga-
10^12 - trillion/tera-
10^15 - quadrillion/peta-
10^18 - quintillion/exa-

10^-01 - tenth
10^-02 - hundredth
10^-03 - thousandth/milli-
10^-06 - millionth/micro-
10^-09 - billionth/nano-
10^-12 - trillionth/pico-
10^-15 - quadrillionth/femto-
10^-18 - quintillionth/atto-

semi-/半
uni-/一
bi-/二
tri-/三
quad-/四
penta-/五
hex-/六
hept-/七
octa-/八
nona-/九
dec-/十

1 comment:

毛衣 said...

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